Literatur Review Penyebab dan Upaya Pencegahan Anemia pada Remaja Putri

Yahmi Ira Setyaningrum, Irma Wulandari, Sena Wahyu Purwanza

Abstract


Anemia merupakan salah satu penyakit tidak menular yang sering terjadi pada remaja putri. Latar belakang kajian ini adalah prevalensi anemia pada remaja putri di Indonesia pada usia 15-24 tahun yang terus meningkat sampai 32% pada tahun 2018. Prevalensi anemia di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kepanjen tahun 2023 sebesar 34,41%. Tingginya prevalensi anemia, membutuhkan penanganan yang serius. Upaya mengatasi anemia telah dilakukan pemerintah melalui suplementasi memberikan Tablet Tambah Darah (TTD), tetapi tingkat kepatuhan konsumsi TTD masih rendah. Anemia pada remaja yang tidak teratasi berpotensi terus berlanjut pada usia produktif. Akibatnya ibu hamil dengan anemia akan melahirkan generasi yang kurang sehat dengan berat badan rendah, imunitas rendah, dan stunting. Tujuan artikel review ini untuk menganalis faktor penyebab anemia dan upaya untuk mengatasi anemia pada remaja putri. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan literatur review artikel yang berkaitan dengan anemia yang diterbitkan 10 tahun terakhir. Penelitian ini dilakukan mulai bulan Januari-Juli 2023. Analisis yang digunakan adalah Mixed Method Systematic Review. Hasil dari kajian literatur menunjukkan bahwa penyebab terbanyak anemia pada remaja putri adalah pola makan tidak memperhatikan kecukupan asupan zat besi, folat dan protein. Upaya menekan anemia pada remaja dengan edukasi gizi, fortifikasi pangan, dan memberikan TTD. Upaya untuk mencegah anemia pada remaja melalui pendidikan kesehatan yang bersifat kolaboratif. Penelitian lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk menguji keefektifan upaya pencegahan anemia pada remaja putri.
Anemia is a non-communicable disease that often occurs in young women. The background of this study is the prevalence of anemia in young women in Indonesia at the age of 15–24 years old, which continues to increase to 32% in 2018. The prevalence of anemia in the working area of the Kepanjen Health Center in 2023 amounted to 34.41%. The high prevalence of anemia requires serious treatment. Efforts to overcome anemia have been carried out by the government through supplementation to provide blood-added tablets (TTD), but the level of compliance with TTD consumption is still low. Anemia in adolescents who are not resolved has the potential to continue in productive age. As a result, pregnant women with anemia will give birth to an unhealthy generation with low body weight, low immunity, and stunting. The purpose of this review article is to analyze the factors causing anemia and efforts to overcome anemia in young women. This research method uses a literature review of articles related to anemia published in the last 10 years. This research was conducted from January to July 2023. The analysis used was a mixed-method systematic review. The result of the literature study shows that the most common cause of anemia in young women is a diet that does not pay attention to the adequacy of iron, folate, and protein intake. Efforts to suppress anemia in adolescents with nutritional education, food fortification, and TTD efforts to prevent anemia in adolescents through collaborative health education. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of efforts to prevent anemia in young women.

Keywords


anemia; penyebab; upaya; pencegahan.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.52365/jond.v3i2.858

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