Analisis Konsentrasi Gas Amonia (NH3) pada Berbagai Tipe Kandang Ayam Broiler dan Hubungannya terhadap Gangguan Pernapasan

Atyaf Umi Faizah, Mursid Raharjo, Onny Setiani

Abstract


Trend populasi ayam broiler di Indonesia khususnya Provinsi Jawa Tengah cenderung naik pada 5 tahun terakhir. Meski demikian, peternakan ayam ini juga menjadi tempat kerja bagi sebagian kalangan yang berisiko terpapar gas berbahaya di kandang, contohnya berupa: NH3, H2S, N2O, PM, VOC, dan lainnya. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk menguji ada tidaknya perbedaan konsentrasi gas NH3 pada 3 tipe peternakan ayam (openhouse, semi-closed, dan closed house) dari  8 kecamatan di kabupaten Banyumas Jawa Tengah, serta menganalisis korelasinya dengan kejadian gangguan pernapasan pada pekerja. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian cross-sectional. Populasi dari penelitian adalah peternakan ayam broiler yang berlokasi di Kabupaten Banyumas dan pekerja di peternakan. Sampel peternakan sebanyak 30 peternakan, sedangkan sampel pekerja sebanyak 80 orang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner standar BMRC dan konsentrasi amonia diukur menggunakan Ammonia Smart Gas Detector AR 8500. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komparasi konsentrasi kadar amonia pada 3 tipe kandang memiliki p-value=0,89. Adapun p-value korelasi antara usia, masa kerja, dan durasi kerja terhadap gangguan pernapasan secara berturut-turut adalah: 0,44; 0,004; 1,000. Kesimpulannya, ada hubungan yang signifikan antara usia dan masa kerja dengan gangguan pernapasan, dan tidak ada hubungan signifikan antara durasi kerja per hari dan kadar NH3 terhadap gangguan pernapasan pekerja.

The broiler chicken population trend in Indonesia, especially in Central Java Province, has tended to increase in the last 5 years. However, this chicken farm is also a workplace for some groups who are at risk of being exposed to dangerous gases in the coop, for example: NH3, H2S, N2O, PM, VOC, and others. The aim of the research was to test whether there were differences in NH3 gas concentrations in 3 types of chicken farms (openhouse, semi-closed, and closed house) from 8 sub-districts in Banyumas district, Central Java, and to analyze the correlation with the incidence of respiratory problems in workers. This research uses a cross-sectional research design. The population of the study consisted of broiler chicken farms located in Banyumas Regency and workers on the farms. The sample of farms was 30 farms, while the sample of workers was 80 people. Data collection was carried out using a standard BMRC questionnaire, and the ammonia concentration was measured using the Ammonia Smart Gas Detector AR 8500. The results showed that the comparison of ammonia concentration levels in the three types of cages had a p-value of 0.89. The p-values of the correlation between age, length of service, and duration of work on respiratory disorders, respectively, are 0.44, 0.004, and 1,000. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between age and length of work and respiratory disorders, and there is no significant relationship between duration of work per day and NH3 levels and workers' respiratory disorders.

Keywords


Amonia (NH3); gangguan pernapasan; peternakan ayam

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.52365/jond.v3i2.931

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