Phytochemical Study of Green Meniran Herb (Phyllanthus niruri L.) and Red Meniran Herb (Phyllanthus urinaria L.) in Jekan Raya Sub-district of Palangka Raya City, Central Kalimantan Province

Sukmawati Damiti, Harlyanti Muthma’innah Mashar, Baharuddin Yusuf


Kalimantan is one of the islands in Indonesia that is famous for its rich biodiversity. Knowledge about the use of traditional medicine using plants has been passed down from generation to generation among the ethnic natives of Kalimantan. One of the typical Kalimantan plants that is efficacious as traditional medicine and contains various potential secondary metabolites is meniran. Based on ethnobotanical studies in Central Kalimantan, meniran is boiled to treat fever, dysentery, jaundice, malaria, therefore further research is needed for the chemical content of meniran which is efficacious. This study aims to determine the phytochemical of green meniran herb (Phyllanthus niruri L.) and red meniran herb (Phyllanthus urinaria L.). Determination of plant samples was carried out for both types of meniran. Then processing, extraction and identification of chemical content. The yield values of each extract obtained were 7.40% and 8.76%. As for the results of phytochemical studies, green and red meniran herb both contain alkaloid, tannins and flavanoids, but green meniran is indicated to have steroid content and red meniran contains triterpenes. Secondary metabolites possessed by these two types of meniran plants are beneficial for health, including as antioxidants, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and a number of pharmacological activities that are significant in improving one's health and minimizing the risk of infection by pathogens. However, further research is needed to test the activity of the content of these two types of meniran as a basis for the manufacture of traditional medicines.


Phytochemical; Phyllanthus niruri L. ; Phyllanthus urinaria L.

Full Text:



Actis-Goretta, L., Romanczyk, L. J., Rodriguez, C. A., Kwik-Uribe, C., & Keen, C. L. 2008. “Cytotoxic Effects of Digalloyl Dimer Procyanidins in Human Cancer Cell Lines.” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 19(12), 797–808.

Agyare, C., Lechtenberg, M., Deters, A., Petereit, F., & Hensel, A. 2011. “Ellagitannins from Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Exell.: Geraniin and Furosin Stimulate Cellular Activity, Differentiation and Collagen Synthesis of Human Skin Keratinocytes and Dermal Fibroblasts.” Phytomedicine, 18(7), 617–624.

Ajala, O. S., Jukov, A., & Ma, C. M. 2014. “Hepatitis C Virus Inhibitory Hydrolysable Tannins from the Fruits of Terminalia chebula.” Fitoterapia, 99(1), 117–123.

Astiti, N. P. A., Sudirga, S. K., & Ramona, Y. 2019. “Analysis of Phenolic and Tannin Contents in the Methanol Extract of Sweet and Sour Star Fruit Plants (Averrhoa carambola L.) Leaves Commonly used as Raw Materials of Lawar (A Balinese Traditional Food).” Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 3(1), 5.

Babbar, N. 2015. “An Introduction Alkaloids and Their Applications in Pharmaceutical Chemistry.” The Pharma Innovation Journal, 4(10), 74–75.

Bribi, N. 2018. “Pharmacological Activity of Alkaloids: a Review.” Asian Journal of Botany, 1(April), 1–5.

Carmagnani, H. J., Mansano, G. B., & Sobreira, F. 2020. “Optimization of the Extraction Process of Phyllanthus niruri L.” Mundo Da Saude, 44(1), 134–143.

Chandranayagam, C., Veeraraghavan, G., Subash, A., & Vasanthi, H. R. 2013. “Restoration of Arsenite Induced Hepato-Toxicity by Crude Tannin Rich Fraction of Theobroma cacao in Sprague Dawley Rats.” Food Research International, 50(1), 46–54.

Ergina, Nuryanti, S., & Pursitasari, I. D. 2014. “Uji Kualitatif Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Pada Daun Palado (Agave angustifolia) yang Diekstraksi dengan Pelarut Air dan Etanol.” Jurnal Akademika Kimia, 3(3), 165–172.

Fahruni, F., Handayani, R., & Novaryatiin, S. 2018. “Potensi Tumbuhan Kelakai (Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.F.) Bedd.) asal Kalimantan Tengah sebagai Afrodisiaka.” Jurnal Surya Medika, 3(2), 144–153.

Gutiérrez-Grijalva, López-Martínez, and Contreras-Angulo,. 2020. “Plant Alkaloids: Structures and Bioactive Properties in Plant-Derived Bioactives: Chemistry and Mode of Action.” Heredia Chapter 5

Handayani, V., & Nurfadillah. 2014. “Kajian Farmakognostik Herba Meniran Hijau (Phyllanthus niruri L.) dan Herba Meniran Merah (Phyllanthus urinaria L.) .” Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia, 1(1), 18–23.

Heim, K. E., Tagliaferro, A. R., & Bobilya, D. J. 2002. “Flavonoid Antioxidants: Chemistry, Metabolism and Structure-Activity Relationships.” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13(10), 572–584.

Hung, P. F., Wu, B. T., Chen, H. C., Chen, Y. H., Chen, C. L., Wu, M. H., Liu, H. C., Lee, M. J., & Kao, Y. H. 2005. “Antimitogenic Effect of Green Tea (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes Depends on the ERK and CDK2 Pathways.” American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 288(5 57-5), 1094–1108.

Hutasuhut, D. A., Aspriyanto, D., & Krishnawan Firdaus, I. W. A. 2022. “Uji Fitokimia Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif Ekstrak Kulit Buah Rambai (Baccaurea motleyana) Konsentrasi 100%.” Dentin, 6(2), 97–102.

Ibrahim. 2016. “Inventarisasi Tumbuhan Obat Tradisional Suku Dayak Bakumpai di Kecamatan Murung Kabupaten Murung Raya.” Skripsi Iain Palangka Raya.

Isenburg, J. C., Simionescu, D. T., & Vyavahare, N. R. 2004. “Elastin Stabilization in Cardiovascular Implants: Improved Resistance to Enzymatic Degradation by Treatment with Tannic Acid.” Biomaterials, 25(16), 3293–3302.

Jastrzebska, M., Zalewska-Rejdak, J., Wrzalik, R., Kocot, A., Mroz, I., Barwinski, B., Turek, A., & Cwalina, B. 2006. “Tannic Acid-Stabilized Pericardium Tissue: IR Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Dielectric Spectroscopy Investigations.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 79(4), 148–156.

Joshi, B., Panda, S. K., Jouneghani, R. S., Liu, M., Parajuli, N., Leyssen, P., Neyts, J., & Luyten, W. 2020. “Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, and Anthelmintic Activities of Medicinal Plants of Nepal Selected Based on Ethnobotanical Evidence.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020.

Kanoh, R., Hatano, T., Ito, H., Yoshida, T., & Akagi, M. 2000. “Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.” Phytomedicine, 7(4), 297–302.

Kemenkes RI. 2017. “Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor Hk.01.07/Menkes/187/2017 tentang Formularium Ramuan Obat Tradisional Indonesia.” Kementerian Kesehatan Ri.

Khafid, A., Wiraputra, M. D., Putra, A. C., Khoirunnisa, N., Putri, A. A. K., Suedy, S. W. A., & Nurchayati, Y. 2023. “UJi Kualitatif Metabolit Sekunder pada Beberapa Tanaman yang Berkhasiat sebagai Obat Tradisional.” Buletin Anatomi Dan Fisiologi, 8(1), 61–70.

Kumar, S., & Pandey, A. K. 2013. “Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: an Overview.” Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 1–16.

Leitao da-Cunha, E. V., Fechine, I. M., Guedes, D. N., Barbosa-Filho, J. M., & Sobral da Silva, M. 2005. “Protoberberine Alkaloids.” Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology, 62(05), 1–75.

Lin, L. T., Chen, T. Y., Lin, S. C., Chung, C. Y., Lin, T. C., Wang, G. H., Anderson, R., Lin, C. C., & Richardson, C. D. 2013. “Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin Against Viruses that use Glycosaminoglycans for Entry.” BMC Microbiology, 13(1), 1–15.

Liu, F., Li, L., Tian, X., Zhang, D., Sun, W., & Jiang, S. 2021. “Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Steroid Saponins Isolated from Rhizoma Paridis.” Journal of Chemistry, 2021.

Mashar, H. M., & Annah, I. 2020. “Cytotoxicity of Kelakai (Stenochlaena palustris) Extract to MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell.” Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia, 7(3), 5–9.

Mehta, Manu, Sarika Gupta, Ajay Duseja, And Sandeep Goyal. 2019. “Phytochemical and Antioxidants Profiling of Phyllanthus Niruri: a Hepatoprotective Plant.” World Journal Of Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences 8 (8).

Moon, H. S., Chung, C. S., Lee, H. G., Kim, T. G., Choi, Y. J., & Cho, C. S. 2007. “Inhibitory Effect OF (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Lipid Accumulation OF 3t3-L1 Cells.” Obesity, 15(11), 2571–2582.

Noorcahyati. 2012. “Tumbuhan Berkhasiat Obat Etnis Asli Kalimantan” (pp. 1–120).

Okuda, T. 2005. “Systematics and Health Effects of Chemically Distinct Tannins in Medicinal Plants.” Phytochemistry, 66(17 SPEC. ISS.), 2012–2031.

Pratiwi, D. R., Sulistyaningsih, Y. C., & Ratnadewi, D. 2020. “Localization of Alkaloid and Other Secondary Metabolites in Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens: Anatomical and Histochemical Studies on Fresh Tissues and Cultured Cells.” HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 27(1), 1–7.

Purwaningsih. 2011. “Keanekaragaman Jenis Tumbuhan Obat di Hutan Rawa Gambut Riam Durian-Kalimantan Tengah.” Berk. Penel. Hayati Edisi Khusus.

Ricky, Dhanang Puspita, And Gelora Mangalik. 2019. “Studi Etnobotani Tumbuhan Obat di Desa Tumbang Jala – Kalimantan Tengah yang Masih Dimanfaatkan sebagai Obat Tradisional.” Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kesehatan “Transformasi Bidang Kesehatan di Era Industri 4.0.”

Risnawati, Risnawati, Muharram Muharram, And Jusniar Jusniar. 2021. “Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak N-Heksana Tumbuhan Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.).” Chemica: Jurnal Ilmiah Kimia Dan Pendidikan Kimia 22 (1): 65. Https://Doi.Org/10.35580/Chemica.V22i1.21730

Salminen, K. A., Meyer, A., Jerabkova, L., Korhonen, L. E., Rahnasto, M., Juvonen, R. O., Imming, P., & Raunio, H. 2011. “Inhibition of Human Drug Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Plant Isoquinoline Alkaloids.” Phytomedicine, 18(6), 533–538.

Serrano, J., Puupponen-Pimiä, R., Dauer, A., Aura, A. M., & Saura-Calixto, F. 2009. “Tannins: Current Knowledge of Food Sources, Intake, Bioavailability and Biological Effects.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53(SUPPL. 2), S310–S329.

Setyati, D., Sulistiyowati, H., Erizcy, M. P., & Ratnasari, T. 2020. “The Flavonoid and Alkaloid Content of Cyclosorus parasiticus (Linn.) Farwell Ferns at the Plantation Areas of Jember Regency.’ BIOLINK (Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan Industri Kesehatan), 7(1), 23–37.

Sieniawska, E. 2015. “Activities of Tannins-from in Vitro Studies to Clinical Trials.” Natural Product Communications, 10(11), 1877–1884.

Tambunan, R. M., Swandiny, G. F., & Zaidan, S. 2019. “Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Etanol 70 % Herba Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) Terstandar.” Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian, 12(2), 60–64.

Tandi, J., Melinda, B., Purwantari, A., & Widodo, A. 2020. “Analisis Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etanol Buah Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L . Moench) dengan Metode Spektrofotometri UV-Vis.” Jurnal Riset Kimia, 6(1), 74–80.

Tessema, F. B., Gonfa, Y. H., Asfaw, T. B., Tadesse, M. G., & Bachheti, R. K. 2023. “Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Dodonaea angustifolia Flower: HPLC Profile and PASS Prediction.” Journal of Chemistry, 2023.

Tian, Y., Gong, G. Y., Ma, L. L., Wang, Z. Q., Song, D., & Fang, M. Y. 2020. “Anti-Cancer Effects of Polyphyllin I: an Update in 5 Years.” Chemico-Biological Interactions, 316 (November 2019), 108936.

Vasconcelos, P. C. P., Andreo, M. A., Vilegas, W., Hiruma-Lima, C. A., & Pellizzon, C. H. 2010. “Effect of Mouriri pusa Tannins and Flavonoids on Prevention and Treatment Against Experimental Gastric Ulcer.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(1), 146–153.

Wang, C. M., Chen, H. T., Wu, Z. Y., Jhan, Y. L., Shyu, C. L., & Chou, C. H. 2016. “Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids Isolated from Alstonia scholaris.” Molecules, 21(2), 1–11.

Watrelot, A. A., & Norton, E. L. 2020. ”Chemistry and Reactivity of Tannins in Vitis spp.: a review.” Molecules, 25(9), 1–24.

Xiong, Y., Yu, Q., Zou, J., He, Y., Zhang, S., Xu, R., & Yang, M. 2014. “Protective Effects of Tannins in Sanguisorbae Radix on Myelosuppression Mice.” Chinese Herbal Medicines, 6(3), 222–227.

Ye Wu, Shuang-Shuang Xie, Yong-Hui Zhang, and Et Al.. 2017. “Triterpenoids from Whole Plants of Phyllanthus urinaria.” Chinese Herbal Medicines, 9(2).

Zhang, C., Li, C., Jia, X., Wang, K., Tu, Y., Wang, R., Liu, K., Lu, T., & He, C. 2019. “In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphyllin VII Through Downregulating MAPK and NF-κB Pathways.” Molecules, 24(5).

Zuo, F., Nakamura, N., Akao, T., & Hattori, M. 2006. “Pharmacokinetics of Berberine and its Main Metabolites in Conventional and Pseudo Germ-Free Rats Determined by Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 34(12), 2064–2072.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 41 times
PDF - 13 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Sukmawati Damiti, Harlyanti Muthma’innah Mashar, Baharuddin Yusuf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed in:


Creative Commons License
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacy (JECP) by Department of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Gorontalo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Support By: